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Internet of Things Learning Road - Internet of Things Communication Technology: NBIoT
What is NBIoT?
NB-IoT, Narrow Band Internet of Things, is a cellular network connection technology designed for the Internet of Everything. As the name suggests, the bandwidth occupied by NB-IoT is very narrow, only about 180KHz, and it uses the license frequency band, which can adopt three deployment methods: in-band, guard band or independent carrier, coexist with existing networks, and can be directly deployed in GSM , UMTS or LTE network, namely 2/3/4G network, realize the reuse of existing networks, reduce deployment costs, and realize smooth upgrades.
As the network with the largest coverage in the world, mobile networks have unique access capabilities. Therefore, compared with wireless connection methods such as WiFi, Bluetooth, and ZigBee, the future of NB-IoT connection technology based on cellular networks is more promising, and it has gradually become an open source. The key to the Internet era has been commercialized in the Internet of Things industry.
Figure 1 is the technological development history of NB-IoT:
Features of NB-IoT
NB-IoT has the following four characteristics:
One, wide coverage. Compared with the existing GSM, broadband LTE and other networks, the coverage is increased by 20dB, and the signal transmission coverage is larger (the GSM base station can cover 35km under ideal conditions), and it can cover places that the deep underground GSM network cannot cover. The principle mainly relies on: 1. Reduce the bandwidth and increase the power spectral density; 2. Repeat transmission to obtain time diversity gain.
Second, the big connection. Compared with the existing wireless technology, the number of accesses under the same base station is increased by 50-100 times, and each cell can reach 50K connections, which is really a massive connection necessary to realize the Internet of Everything. The principle is: 1. Based on the delay-insensitive characteristics, the traffic model is used to save more context of access devices and switch between the sleep state and the active state; 2. The uplink scheduling of the narrowband Internet of Things has small particles and resources Higher utilization rate; 3. Reduce air interface signaling interaction and increase spectrum density.
Three, low power consumption. The terminal is in a sleep state 99% of the time, and integrates a variety of power-saving technologies, with a standby time of up to 10 years. 1. PSM low power consumption mode, that is, increase the PSM state in the idle state, which is equivalent to shutting down, wake up by the timer control, lower energy consumption; 2. eDRX extended discontinuous reception power saving mode, using longer In the paging cycle, eDRX is 1/16 of the power consumption of DRX.
Fourth, low cost. The hardware can be tailored and the software is simplified on demand, ensuring the low cost of NB-IoT. The cost of a single NB-IoT communication module is less than US$5.
NB-IoT also has the characteristics of low speed and low mobility due to its applicable scenarios. 1. Low speed. The multipoint uplink rate is only 56kbps, and the ideal downlink rate is 21.25kbps; 2. Low mobility. It only supports terminal equipment to achieve cell handover at a moving rate of 30km/h, which is much lower than the 250km/h rate supported by 4G (high-speed rail private network can reach 450km/h).
Overall architecture of NB-IoT solution
Figure 2 below shows the overall architecture of the NB-IoT solution:
NB-IoT development status
Figure 3 below shows the overview of the NB-IoT ecosystem:
NB-IoT is currently trial commercial and commercial examples:
1. Huawei/China Unicom’s NB-IoT smart parking solution: This smart parking system based on Huawei’s NB-IoT module will be able to reserve and sublet parking spaces and other functions. Low power consumption and high penetration capabilities make this The scheme is more reliable. At present, the parking system has been tested for commercial use in Shanghai Disneyland.
2. On July 13, 2017, ofo, China Telecom and Huawei jointly announced that the three jointly developed NB-IoT "Internet of Things Smart Locks" have been fully commercialized.
3. Smart manhole cover of ZTE/China Mobile: This solution monitors the state of the manhole cover in an all-round way, and can realize timely warning when the manhole cover is opened or displaced.
NB-IoT chip development:
1. As the largest NB-IoT chip manufacturer in China, Huawei has launched Boudica 120/Hi2110 IoT chip, equipped with Huawei LiteOS embedded IoT operating system.
2. American Qualcomm has launched an IoT chip with the model number MDM9206, which supports all frequency bands in the world of Cat-M1 and Cat-NB1 standards, has GSM/NB-IoT/eMTC multi-mode support, and also supports GPS, Gnarros, Beidou , Galileo global navigation satellite positioning.
3. ZTE Microelectronics has developed the RoseFinch 7100 (also known as "Suzaku") NB-IoT IoT chip, which is specially designed for low-power IoT. The sleep power consumption, cut-off voltage and number of peripheral excuses are related to IoT applications. The core indicators are at the leading level in the industry.
4. Intel's XMM 7X15 series of IoT chips.
NB-IoT module development:
1. ZTE developed the LPWA communication module ZM8300 based on the Qualcomm MDM920 chip, which supports NB-IoT and eMTC dual-mode.
2. Quectel, based on Huawei's Hi2110 IoT chip, launched BC95-B20/B8/B5/B28, and BG96 module based on Qualcomm MDM9206 chip.
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